The Christus Victor Theory of the Atonement

The Gospel According to Erik

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In my last post I gave a quick outline on the nature of the atonement, particularly highlighting Robin Collins’ “Incarnational View”, which has its roots in Eastern Orthodox theology of theosis. Another view that I find particularly helpful is the Christus Victor model, which also has its roots in the E.O.C. and the early church fathers. Before we look at the Christus Victor model, I think it’s important to contrast it against the main model over the past few centuries, and that is the Satisfaction or Penal Substitution model.

Penal Substitution

For the sake of space I’ll present a rough sketch of this view and point out some of its deficiencies. Developed by St. Anselm in the 11th century, the picture is that Christ paid the debt of obedience that we owe God for our sins.  Out of this evolved the Penal theory by the Protestant Reformers, and it’s basically…

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Saint George and the Dragon in Iconography

A Reader's Guide to Orthodox Icons

Russian Icon of St George, based on a 15th Century depiction

The wealth of images depicted in holy icons is overwhelming, yet one thing appears to unite them all. Despite not usually being painted in a naturalistic way, they are always concerned in depicting reality. In icons of the life of Christ, His Saints, or other historic events we are always presented with what happened, and the meaning behind what happened.

The image of St George killing the dragon, on the other hand, appears more like a fairy-story; indeed, it is a popular image in children’s story books.

So why are there literally thousands of holy icons surviving of St George killing a dragon, found in all parts of the Christian world, and spanning centuries?

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Andrew Garfield Is My Spiritual Director

ME: Wow—Hacksaw Ridge and now Silence—Andrew Garfield is my spiritual director.
MY SPOUSE: “With great power comes great responsibility.”

File Jan 17, 10 02 58 PM.png EYEBROWS.

That’s a joke. Andrew Garfield is not my spiritual director. Though if you’re reading this, Mr. Garfield, you’re awesome. Love the eyebrows.

But seriously: following an interestingly mixed career that swung (sorry) from The Social Network to The Amazing Spider-Man, Andrew Garfield’s 2016 releases provided me a one-two punch at just the right time. Interviews suggest that he made them right atop one another, too, using new and overlapping skills.

His two characters—Father Sebastião Rodrigues the 17th-century Portuguese Jesuit and Desmond Doss the 20th-century American Seventh-Day Adventist—share almost nothing other than their capacities to be played by the same actor and have problems in Japan. If they met, they wouldn’t be able to converse. They occupy the same religious tradition in only the broadest sense. But within…

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I’m Doubting Christianity- A Response To Andrew Garfield

The Dancing Enigma

I’m not a political person and I try not to push my beliefs on those who are uninterested in hearing but Andrew Garfield just publicly stated that he doesn’t have much knowledge of the Bible and used to be a self-proclaimed atheist yet I think he understands a relationship with Jesus Christ better than a lot of Christians I know; myself being at the top of that list. A life of doubt is the goal; not the enemy.

It’s applicable, as he says this in a time of blind beliefs. It’s acceptable to take the simplest form of an opinion and cash it in as truth. No one questions anything anymore. Who is Jesus Christ? Did He really exist? What’s the point of human existence? What if Jesus isn’t real? What if we die and then there’s just… blackness? If God loves perfectly and if God is love; does God love…

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Actor Andrew Garfield longs to spread teachings of Christ, after making movie ‘Silence’

Fellowship of the Minds

UPDATE (Jan. 11, 2017):

I just read a review of this movie in Crisis magazine. I withdraw my recommendation for Silence. From the review’s conclusion:

“Believers hoping for a film that explores Christian ideas from an authentic Christian context—should skip this one. Silence should also not be seen by the young, or those whose faith is not strong as the theology in this movie is complex, clever and seductive.”


Here’s a ray of light from the wasteland of anti-Christian Hollywood.

He is Andrew Garfield, the actor who first got notice by playing Spiderman.

Garfield is starring in two new movies that are generating Oscar buzz:

  • Mel Gibson’s come-back-from-disgrace flick, Hacksaw Ridge, about a WWII heroic, Christian conscientious objector.
  • Martin Scorcese’s 40-years-in-the-making movie, Silence, about Jesuit missionaries in feudal Japan of the 1600s when Christianity was suppressed and Christian missionaries were hounded and killed. Movie critic Roger…

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Horse Cults and Horse Sacrifice

Eric Edwards Collected Works


Uffington White Horse

The horse, which is regarded as magical and widespread in myth, has been closely associated with humans for millennia having been used domestically and in warfare for cavalry and chariots. Ownership of a horse was a sign of wealth and prestige, and was the mount of kings, nobles and heroes, having been domesticated after 1750 BC with little evidence prior to 2000 BC (Cooper, 1992). Extensive proof of the importance of the horse is evidenced by its continuing “…to be a symbol of great religious significance throughout the pagan period.” (Gelling, 1969). Other interpretations consider the so-called English “…aversion to eating horse-flesh may be one indication of a long-forgotten horse-totem.” (Brown, 1950). Moreover it is believed that the horse “…played a pivotal role as a sacrificial, totemic and symbolic animal in an array of prehistoric and historic contexts.” (Moore-Colyer, 1994).

In symbolic terms the horse represents power and dynamism, wisdom and fleetness of…

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The Meaning of "The Man Comes Around" by Johnny Cash

Wesleyan Arminian

“The Man Comes Around” is a song about judgment day. It was released in 2002, and was the title song for Johnny Cash’s last album. The song has numerous Biblical references, many of which are cryptic.

And I heard, as it were, the noise of thunder: One of the four beasts saying: “Come and see.” And I saw. And behold, a white horse.

This is a quote from Revelation 6:1-2. It references John’s vision of the four horsemen of the Apocalypse, who bring disaster at the end of the world.

There’s a man going round taking names. And he decides who to free and who to blame. Everybody won’t be treated all the same. There’ll be a golden ladder reaching down. When the man comes around.

The “man going round taking names” has double meaning. It is a reference to a song by folk singer Lead Belly

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